Posts Tagged ‘perl’

I wouldn’t get into google (their interviews don’t select for my brand of genius). But that’s fine as I wouldn’t be able to write perl there anyway.

I was trying to think of a few reasons why Google would have chosen Python over Perl as their primary scripting language. A number of the ones I came up with are less relevant than they used to be.

Python integrates better with C++

Boost.Python promises seamless interoperability between the two languages. It has been a while since I’ve been tempted to embed a scripting language in my C++ apps so I’m not sure what the counterpart is in Perl if any.

Python "threads"

Back in the day, these were better than the Perl offering. More recently, on Unix at least; with Coro, AnyEvent, Twisted, etc. it’s a wash.

Windows Implementation

A few years ago, the various Perl Windows implementations were not very high quality. Strawberry Perl has changed all that though. It’s awesome.

Jython et el.

Was Jython around when Google was choosing Python? I guess it was.

Perl (5) hasn’t escaped its VM as well as Python and Ruby. Having said that, the Jythons and JRubys of the world are always second class citizens compared to the original C VM as no-one can be bothered to rewrite all the C extensions.

Easier to avoid making a mess as a secondary language?

Experts in either language can write clean, efficient code. But what about folks who are expert in C++ and Java and use either Perl or Python on the side and only occasionally?

I think such usage for a large system will result in unwieldy code in either language, unless the large system is curated by experts, but for small to medium systems in the absence of experts, python may have the edge.

Rabid anti-Perlism

Even smart folks I know seem to think Perl is lacking in some way in comparison to Python. I haven’t managed to get them to enumerate any reasons though so I figure they are speaking from a position of ignorance. This could have been the case for the folks making the decisions for google too or, more likely, they may have considered some of the other reasons on my list.

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Of the languages I know, emacs-lisp is unusual in that when you need to access the field of a structure, you need to know the name of the type1.

(defstruct person age name)
(defvar dave (make-person))
(setf (person-age dave) 20) ;; getter specifies the type!
(setf (person-name dave) "David Jones")
(message (person-name dave)) ;; -- David Jones

Notice I can’t say (age dave) here, it has to be (person-age ...).

The underlying reason for this is that structures are really vectors. (person-age object) translates into (aref object 1) which should hopefully be pretty fast. Another structure doesn’t need to keep its age member at an offset of 1, so I can’t say it is (generic-structure-age object).

In basic perl objects, because they are really just a hash reference, I don’t need to specify the type. When it is needed, the VM figures it out at runtime.

package Person;

sub new
    bless {}, $_[0];

package main;

my $dave = Person->new(); # Type specified here
$dave{'age'} = 20;        # but not here
$dave{'name'} = 'David Jones';

print $dave{'name'}, "\n";
$ perl t.pl
David Jones

In many statically typed languages, the fact that the compiler knows what the type is enables it to generate efficient code. I still don’t need to specify it explicitly.


using namespace std;

struct person
    int age;
    string name;

int main()
    person dave;

    dave.age = 20;             // No type explicitly specified here
    dave.name = "David Jones"; // or here

    cout << "Name: " << dave.name << "\n";
$ g++ t.cpp
$ ./a.exe
Name: David Jones

For objects created using the new version of defstruct* I’ve defunned a get-field and set-field that don’t require the type to be specified. Error checking is, as usual, elided

(defsubst get-index (object field)
  (cdr (assoc field (symbol-value (aref object 1)))))

(defun get-field (object field)
  (aref object (get-index object field)))

(defun set-field (object field value)
  (setf (aref object (get-index object field)) value))

(get-field dave 'name)
(set-field dave 'name "Simon Smith")

Although by this time we’re probably both wondering why I didn’t just use a hash like all the (other) scripting languages.

1. To be more accurate, you need to tell the computer what the type is. Obviously, if you want to do something useful with an object, you generally need to know what type it is anyway.

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Following Nilson’s comment, I’ve updated my perl and python method call benchmarks to (hopefully) test what I actually intended to test.

I must admit, I’m not nearly as interested in method call times as I am in vanilla subroutine call times which could be why I made such a hash of it in the first place.

And I haven’t updated the iteration method as I’m not interested in loop speed (hence why I measured the base case) and that would make pointless extra work for me to do.

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Some folks requested a few more benchmarks. In this case, I’m happy to oblige. Perl does not come off well in these benchmarks.

Perl Code

package class;

sub new
    return bless {}, $_[0];

sub f1

sub f2
    my ($self, $x, $y) = @_;
    return ($x, $y);

sub f2a
    my $self = shift;
    my $x = shift;
    my $y = shift;
    return ($x, $y);

package main;

my $obj = class->new();

for ($i = 0; $i < 10_000_000; ++$i) {
    my ($x, $y) = $obj->f2(1, 2);

Python Code

class myClass:

    def f1(self):

    def f2(self, a, b):
        return a, b

x = myClass()

for i in xrange (1, 10000000):
    a,b = x.f2('hello', 'world')

Perl Results

$ perl -v

This is perl, v5.10.1 (*) built for i686-linux-thread-multi

$ time perl ./func.pl # f1()

real    0m5.052s
user    0m5.044s
sys     0m0.008s

$ time perl ./func.pl # f2(1, 2)

real    0m11.598s
user    0m11.585s
sys     0m0.000s

real    0m10.838s
user    0m10.833s
sys     0m0.000s

$ time perl ./func.pl # f2a(1, 2)

real    0m10.740s
user    0m10.713s
sys     0m0.004s

real    0m12.014s
user    0m11.993s
sys     0m0.012s

$ time perl ./func.pl # f2a('hello', 'world')

real    0m16.524s
user    0m16.505s
sys     0m0.008s

real    0m16.521s
user    0m16.489s
sys     0m0.000s

Python Results

$ time python ./func.py # f1()

real    0m3.840s
user    0m3.828s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time python ./func.py # f2(1, 2)

real    0m4.546s
user    0m4.504s
sys     0m0.040s

real    0m5.887s
user    0m5.860s
sys     0m0.016s

$ time python ./func.py # f2('hello', 'world')

real    0m4.548s
user    0m4.540s
sys     0m0.008s

real    0m5.907s
user    0m5.904s
sys     0m0.004s

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For a long time now I have suspected that calling perl subroutines is slow. And I couldn’t figure out from the language shootout which benchmark tested subroutine calls (did it use to be Ackermann?) so I made up my own benchmark.

Perl in comparison to its closest rival – CPython.

I tested a few things:

First, a loop that does nothing, to see how much is loop overhead
Next a zero parameter function
Then a function called with two integers
And finally, declaring those two integers inline.

I’m assuming that an optimiser doesn’t come along and remove code that does nothing. From the results, it seems like a safe assumption.

And, I’m not running benchmarks multiple times or with many iterations because, frankly, I don’t care that much. I just want to get an idea as to how Perl stacks up.

Python Code

def f1():

def f2(a, b):
    pass # return a, b

for i in xrange (1, 10000000):
    # f1
    # f2(1, 2)
    # x,y=1,2

Python Results

 $ python -V
Python 2.6.5

$ time python ./func.py # (pass)

real    0m0.722s
user    0m0.720s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time python ./func.py # (x,y = 1,2)

real    0m2.030s
user    0m2.024s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time python ./func.py # (f1)

real    0m2.265s
user    0m2.244s
sys     0m0.012s

$ time python ./func.py # (f2 - pass)

real    0m2.885s
user    0m2.880s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time python ./func.py # (f2 - return a, b)

real    0m3.190s
user    0m3.144s
sys     0m0.012s

Perl Code

sub f1

sub f2
    my ($x, $y) = @_;

for ($i = 0; $i < 10_000_000; ++$i) {
    # f1();
    # f2(1, 2);
    # my ($x, $y) = (1, 2);

Perl Results

$ time perl ./func.pl # (1)

real    0m0.893s
user    0m0.888s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time perl ./func.pl # (f1)

real    0m2.932s
user    0m2.924s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time perl ./func.pl # (f2)

real    0m5.607s
user    0m5.580s
sys     0m0.004s

$ time perl ./func.pl # (my ($x, $y) ...)

real    0m2.687s
user    0m2.672s
sys     0m0.008s


A few things jump out at me.

1. 10 million subroutine calls take around a couple of seconds. Would reducing call speed actually affect any real program much?

2. Declaring the variables and assigning the values takes almost as long as the empty function call.

3. Python function calls are faster than perl function calls but it’s not by enough to worry about.

My next post should hopefully clarify why I was thinking about this.

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So I’m perhaps 1% of the way to a poorly thought out middleware component like CORBA1. No, it’s more light-weight, maybe a messaging layer, sorry I mean wire-level protocol specification implementation such as AMQP.

And then I think (like hundreds have probably thought before me), you know, this would be more useful if it had authentication. After all, I don’t want just anyone to be able to send kill signals to any processes. That would be like everyone being root. Which terrifies me.

Don’t invent your own authentication mechanism

And the golden rule about authentication, as far as I can work out, is don’t invent your own authentication mechanism. You’ll get it wrong and leave gaping vulnerabilities for the bad guys to have their wicked way with you. That is, if anyone besides you ever uses your code. And besides, I don’t want to waste any of my 1500 lines on coming up with Yet Another Broken Authentication System.

A quick trip to CPAN

Then I’m looking through the Authen::XXX modules on CPAN and none of them behave in exactly the way I want. But somehow I find a perl server that includes authentication and perhaps does everything I want and I should definitely put it on my list of things to look into even though I’m having a lot of fun with AnyEvent right now.

But by the time I come to look again, I can’t find it. And I’ve complained about documentation before, but Emacs really does deserve it, and I know of no system or language that is better documented than Perl. But I guess the classification problem is a bit tricky to overcome.


Anyway, long story short, I found it.

authenticated perl server -http

An Authenticating Perl Server

The first link (warning PDF) is a paper about using Authen::SASL in client/servers and it mentions ARCv2 which sounds like what I’m looking for.

The first thing to do is find out if it does what I want. The second is to check if it works on Windows.

1. Ambiguity left in deliberately

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This is part 1 in my occasional AnyEvent series

I’ve been playing around with Plack and Twiggy recently and that motivated me to take a look at AnyEvent, the eventing library that Twiggy is built upon.

Now, it seems to me that AnyEvent is useful in a similar problem-space to POE (or Coro, on Unix at least). POE has more documentation but AnyEvent can actually use a couple of Event Loops that were implemented in C: EV and libevent which is the backbone of the hugely successful memcached. Sounds good to me.

As usual, first things first. How do you make a simple TCP server? I took a look at how Twiggy does it – the code is available in Twiggy::Server. I won’t need everything in there of course.

The Preamble

I like the way that Twiggy sets a constant called DEBUG from an environment variable. Now I can call the script like this: $ SERVER_DEBUG=1 ./ae.pl and get debugging output.


use 5.010;

use strict;
use warnings;

package Server;

use constant CTRL_D => 4;
use constant DEBUG => $ENV{SERVER_DEBUG};

use IO::Handle;
use Errno qw(EAGAIN EINTR);

use AnyEvent;
use AnyEvent::Socket;
use AnyEvent::Util qw(WSAEWOULDBLOCK);

Basic Perl Objects

The watch variables only watch while they are in scope. If we have a simple object, we can dump them into the underlying blessed hash reference to keep ’em in scope. I’m lamenting the non-standardness of Moose here, but that’s another post.

sub new
    my $class = shift;
    my $self = {};
    bless $self, $class;
    return $self;

Bottom-up or Top-down I’m never quite sure how to present my code. Hmmm…


So, we’re assuming here that a server object will be called (with my $server Server->new()=) and then we will call $server->start_listen(...).

The example tcp_server call in the AnyEvent::Socket documentation rather unhelpfully demonstrates closing the socket the moment it has connected with a The internet is full, $host:$port. Go away! message. Oh well, maybe my examples are equally flawed. Thank goodness for Twiggy.

sub start_listen
    my ($self, $host, $port) = @_;

    $self->{server} = tcp_server($host,

prepare_handler just logs a basic message on start-up. The accept handler returns a closure to maintain access to $self. The closure sets the socket options and then creates a watcher using watch_socket.

sub prepare_handler
    my ($fh, $host, $port) = @_;
    DEBUG && warn "Listening on $host:$port\n";

sub _accept_handler
    my $self = shift;

    return sub {
        my ($sock, $peer_host, $peer_port) = @_;

        DEBUG && warn "$sock Accepted connection from $peer_host:$peer_port\n";
        return unless $sock;

        setsockopt($sock, IPPROTO_TCP, TCP_NODELAY, 1)
            or die "setsockopt(TCP_NODELAY) failed: $!";

        # my $socket = IO::Socket::INET->new_from_fd($sock, 'r+');
        # $socket->autoflush(1);
        # $socket->blocking(0);


AnyEvent IO watcher

The watcher is setup to echo whatever it received, back to the sender. If it receives EOF (sent when a telnet client hits CTRL-D), then it terminates the connection.

Now, I didn’t manage to get this working immediately. If the watcher goes out of scope, it doesn’t end up watching anything. And I originally omitted the undef $headers_io_watcher statements. As the closure wasn’t referring to the watcher variable, it went out of scope immediately. Adding them added a reference which stopped that happening. Nice, if a little subtle.

sub watch_socket
    my ($self, $sock) = @_;

    my $headers_io_watcher;

    $headers_io_watcher = AE::io $sock, 0, sub {
        while (defined(my $line = <$sock>)) {
            $line =~ s/\r?\n$//;
            say "Received: [$line] " . length($line) . ' ' . ord($line);

            if (length($line) == 1 and ord($line) == CTRL_D) {
                print $sock "Received EOF.  Closing connection...\r\n";
                undef $headers_io_watcher;
            } else {
                print $sock "You sent [$line]\r\n";

        if ($! and $! != EAGAIN && $! != EINTR && $! != WSAEWOULDBLOCK ) {
            undef $headers_io_watcher;
            die $!;
        } elsif (!$!) {
            undef $headers_io_watcher;
            die "client disconnected";


package main;

my $host = undef;
my $port = 12345;

my $server = Server->new();
$server->start_listen($host, $port);


And here is the result.

$ telnet localhost 12345
Trying ::1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
You sent [hello]
Received EOF.  Closing connection...
Connection closed by foreign host.

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I’m a huge fan of code reuse, and I tend to trust other people’s public code more than my own private code. After all, if they put effort into making it public, they must have put a lot of thought into it. And more than likely it is probably their speciality. That’s why I don’t (for example) implement my own webservers 🙂 Having said that, I’ve reimplemented more wheels than I care to admit. Here is me, providing my own version of identity – a built-in emacs function. How embarrassing. Almost put me off blogging that did.

So, I try to do a bit of due dilligence when I’m thinking about writing a simple thing that someone surely has already done. What I want, is an interprocess mutex. There must be a million ways of doing these things, so I have a quick look on CPAN. Searching for mutex brings up LockFile::NetLock which looks interesting (although slightly paranoid, and I don’t have my own ftp server).

IPC::Semaphore looks like it only supports SysV (i.e. not Windows) and the API is somewhat baroque. Win32::Semaphore has the opposite problem (I’m guessing). I did like the look of POSIX::RT::Semaphore but suspected it wouldn’t install on Windows.

dmake.EXE:  Error code 129, while making 'Semaphore.o'
  C:\strawberry\c\bin\dmake.EXE -- NOT OK
Running make test
  Can't test without successful make
Running make install
  Make had returned bad status, install seems impossible

Yep, I was right. I’ll spare you the results from the other hour I spent googling various things like semaphore and process mutex.

Okay, let’s think about this. Maybe I could write my own simple little thing with a nice API, and if I find a decent module later I can delegate to it, or maybe delegate to Win32::Semaphore on Windows and the SysV version everywhere else. The ACE guys call that a wrapper facade. Does flock work on Windows?

So the plan is to call flock LOCK_EX on a file in the constructor, and then flock LOCK_UN in the destructor in a kinda RAII way. Famous last words, but what else could I possibly need?

package IPC::ProcessMutex;

use Carp;
use Fcntl;

sub import { }

sub new
    my $class = shift;
    my $file = shift;

    my $fh;
    if (! sysopen($fh, $file, O_CREAT)) {
        croak "Unable to sysopen $file";

    my $self = { handle => $fh };
    bless $self, $class;

    flock $fh, Fcntl::LOCK_EX;

    return $self;

    my $self = shift;

    if (exists $self->{handle}) {
        flock $self->{handle}, Fcntl::LOCK_UN;
        close $self->{handle};
        delete $self->{handle};
    } else {
        carp 'DESTROY - handle was not defined';


And to avoid having to think to hard about whether the code actually works or not, I’ll check it with a little test 😉

use POSIX;
use FindBin;

use lib "$FindBin::Bin/lib/perl5";

use IPC::ProcessMutex;

sub my_log
    my $ts = POSIX::strftime('%H:%M:%S', localtime(time()));
    print "[ $ts ] : ", @_, "\n";

    my_log 'Getting mutex ...';
    my $mutex = IPC::ProcessMutex->new('.filename.lock');
    my_log 'Got mutex.  Sleeping 10 ...';
    sleep 10;

my_log 'Released mutex.';

Process 1

jared@win32 $ perl get-mutex.pl
[ 21:37:57 ] : Getting mutex ...
[ 21:37:57 ] : Got mutex.  Sleeping 10 ...
[ 21:38:07 ] : Released mutex.
jared@win32 $ perl get-mutex.pl
[ 21:38:15 ] : Getting mutex ...
[ 21:38:17 ] : Got mutex.  Sleeping 10 ...
[ 21:38:27 ] : Released mutex.
jared@win32 $

Process 2

jared@win32 $ perl get-mutex.pl
[ 21:38:02 ] : Getting mutex ...
[ 21:38:07 ] : Got mutex.  Sleeping 10 ...
[ 21:38:17 ] : Released mutex.
jared@win32 $ perl get-mutex.pl
[ 21:38:24 ] : Getting mutex ...
[ 21:38:27 ] : Got mutex.  Sleeping 10 ...
[ 21:38:37 ] : Released mutex.
jared@win32 $

Yes! Mission accomplished as they say. I’m tentatively going to go with that…

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Something a casual user of a language will miss out on, is using the latest and greatest libraries of that language and generally programming in a modern style. For example, I1 still naturally use open(FH, 'filename') || die; and have to force myself to use the more modern open(my $fh, '<', 'filename') with its lexically scoped filehandle.

I have been programming Perl for 12 years or so, but aside from one conference (YAPC Muenchen 2002) I’ve never really immersed myself in the community. For this reason, I think I have missed out on quite a few niceties. Moose, DBIx and other modules bring Perl up to the level of its contemporaries if you don’t need to work with people who are not using them. I only came across POE recently (which I keep mentioning because it is so awesome).

Heck, even C++ has boost.

Modifiable Syntax

or DSLs I think they call it.

Ray Dillinger once pointed out that people write scheme in a variety of incompatible styles because the substrate isn’t pleasant for programming on directly. But it is possible to layer any sugar you like on it. This leads to a bunch of different and practically incompatible styles.

Anyway, what I see is that scheme programmers are capable of
doing a heck of a lot as individuals, and are very happy with
the personally-customized language they each work with. But
they tend not to work together on large projects because of
the cognitive overhead of learning each other’s personally-
customized languages, which may have different or conflicting

Common Lisp programmers, by contrast, have a lot of standard
libraries and tend to forgive or ignore some small things that
may not fit perfectly with their personal style. But they do
work together on large projects, because they all have the same
set of language extensions and they can read each other’s code.

I still find eager comprehensions about the nicest way of specifying nested loops that I’ve seen. Perl syntax tweaking dudes: if you add these, I’ll never switch! What’s that? Fix it myself? It is easier to move to python or ruby I think.

Is it a coincidence that languages with fixable syntax (Lisp, Perl, Tcl, Ocaml) have ‘lost’ to those with a fixed syntax (Java, Python)? Ruby dudes beware.

Supporting Your Language

There have been a few posts floating around the blogosphere talking about writing posts supporting perl. I put my own effort into doing something similar for Emacs. However, in my opinion, Emacs needs the help and Perl does not.

Emacs could be greatly improved if there were many more Emacs Lisp hackers creating libraries and writing examples and documentation. Perl already has all of those things. <strike>As</strike> If its popularity wanes, what is lost? I guess people are thinking about job opportunities and stuff like that, but I suspect that the outflow of former Perl programmers will outpace the loss of Perl jobs.

Er, So what is my point?

Oh yes, Emacs-using Perl dudes, please add eager comprehensions to Perl and write Emacs blog posts rather than Perl ones. Thank you.

1. Even though I’m not really a casual Perl user. I do this stuff professionally don’t you know 😉

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Okay, this post is going to be quite long. I’m going to start with a basic problem I was solving in emacs lisp. From there I’ll segue into thinking about looping syntax and finally I’ll do a bit of benchmarking as I’ve got the code already and people seem to like that (the scheme, ocaml, c++ speed comparison is by far the most popular post on this blog followed by this).

Futzing around with Project Euler is something I do for fun. Most recently I was looking at problem 73 – count the reduced proper fractions with a denominator less than or equal to 10,000 between 1/3 and 1/2.

Emacs Lisp Solution

Emacs Lisp is usually my default language for doing this kind of thing as I’m already in my text editor and there is a REPL to experiment with.

First of all, it is clear that I’m going to need a function to calculate the greatest common divisor. I found an imperative Pascal implementation of Euclid’s algorithm here. A brief aside – I searched for Pascal deliberately as I generally find it very clear. Does anyone else do that?

(defun gcd (a b)
  (while (not (= b 0))
    (let ((tmp b))
      (setq b (% a b))
      (setq a tmp)))

Thinking ahead, I’ll probably know what the gcd is before we call make-fraction as only fractions with a gcd of 1 will be actually counted amongst the solutions. I’ve therefore made gcd an optional parameter as a nod to efficiency.

(defsubst make-fraction (num denom &optional gcd)
  (unless gcd (setq gcd (gcd num denom)))
  (cons (/ num gcd) (/ denom gcd)))

I like the flexibility that lisp-like languages give you to name your functions too.

(defsubst more-than-1/3 (frac)
  (let ((num (car frac))
        (denom (cdr frac)))
    (> (* num 3) denom)))

(defsubst less-than-1/2 (frac)
  (let ((num (car frac))
        (denom (cdr frac)))
    (< (* num 2) denom)))

(defsubst within-range (frac)
  (and (more-than-1/3 frac) (less-than-1/2 frac)))

We only check fractions between 1/3 and 1/2 as to do all fractions with a denominator <= 10,000 would take far too long.

(defun solve-it (max-denom)
  (insert (format-time-string "\n\nStarted at: %H:%M:%S\n\n"))
  (let (num denom frac max gcd solutions)
    (setq solutions 0)
    (setq denom 2)
    (while (<= denom max-denom)
      (setq num (/ denom 3))
      (setq max (1+ (/ denom 2)))
      (while (<= num max)
        (setq gcd (gcd num denom))
        (when (= gcd 1)
          (setq frac (make-fraction num denom gcd))
          (when (within-range frac)
            ;; (insert (format "%s\n" frac))
            (incf solutions)))
        (incf num))
      (incf denom)
      (when (= (% denom 50) 0)
        (insert (format "Denom: %d Solutions: %d\n" denom solutions)))
      (sit-for 0))
    (insert (format "\n%d solutions\n" solutions))
    (insert (format-time-string "Finished at: %H:%M:%S\n"))))

After I wrote this, I realised I didn’t need to construct and destruct my fraction type so simplified to the following:

(defun solve-it (max-denom)
  (insert (format-time-string "\n\nStarted at: %H:%M:%S\n"))
  (let (num denom frac max solutions)
    (setq solutions 0)
    (setq denom 5)
    (while (<= denom max-denom)
      (setq num (1+ (/ denom 3)))
      (setq max (/ denom 2))
      (while (<= num max)
        (when (= (gcd num denom) 1)
          (incf solutions))
        (incf num))
      (incf denom))
    (insert (format "%d solutions\n" solutions))
    (insert (format-time-string "Finished at: %H:%M:%S\n"))))

(solve-it 10000)

;; Started at: 22:14:35
;; 5066251 solutions
;; Finished at: 22:15:45

70 seconds. Okay.

The most annoying thing is the primitive looping constructs. while is the basic and obvious built-in. It also has a slew of macros beginning with doXXX including dotimes and dolist not to mention the mighty common lisp loop macro.

I don’t know loop (but I’m going to learn it), but after messing about with do* for a few minutes, I realised it wasn’t the looping construct for me.

(do* ((i 5 (if (> j 10) (+ i 1) i))
      (j (+ i 1) (if (> j 10) (+ i 1) (+ j 1))))
    ((> i 10))
  (insert (format "[%d %d]" i j)))


Now, the great thing about lisp is supposed to be that if you don’t like the syntax you can add your own with macros. Unfortunately, I haven’t got around to that yet as a bunch of people have already designed most of the syntax I like.

Scheme Solution

When I read some of the earlier posts on this blog, it seems that scheme has got some nice generator syntax (aka eager comprehensions) for handling nested loops.

There are a nice set of posts on eager comprehensions here.

I took print-ln from the portable scheme post and gcd from SICP.

#lang scheme/base

(require srfi/42)

(define (print-ln . args)
  (for-each display args)

(define (gcd a b)
  (if (= b 0) a
      (gcd b (remainder a b))))

(define (solve-it max-denom)
  (sum-ec (:range denom 2 (+ max-denom 1))
          (:range num (+ (floor (/ denom 3)) 1) (ceiling (/ denom 2)))
          (if (= (gcd num denom) 1) 1 0)))

(print-ln "There are " (solve-it 10000) " solutions")

Yikes, mzscheme is much quicker than emacs-lisp. That surprised me. A factor of 10 I would have expected, a factor of 50 not so much.

$ time mzscheme frac.scm
There are XXX solutions

real    0m1.413s
user    0m1.404s
sys     0m0.004s

Perl Solution

use strict;
use warnings;

use POSIX qw(floor ceil);

sub gcd
    my ($n1, $n2) = @_;
    until ($n2 == 0) {
        my $tmp = $n2;
        $n2 = $n1 % $n2;
        $n1 = $tmp;
    return $n1;

The nested loop actually looks okay to me in perl although not as nice as the srfi-42 eager comprehensions.

sub solve_it
    my $max_denom = $_[0];
    my $solutions = 0;
    foreach my $denom (5..$max_denom) {
        my $max = ceil($denom / 2) - 1;
        foreach my $num ((1 + floor($denom / 3))..$max) {
            if (gcd($num, $denom) == 1) {
    return $solutions;

printf "There are %d solutions\n", solve_it(10000);

The performance of my perl is pretty bad too.

$ time perl frac.pl
There are XXX solutions

real    0m47.026s
user    0m46.963s
sys     0m0.008s

Ocaml Solution

let rec gcd a b =
  if b = 0 then a
  else gcd b (a mod b);;

let solve_it max_denom =
  let rec loop num denom solutions =
    if denom > max_denom then solutions
    else if num >= (denom/2+1) then
      loop ((denom+1)/3+1) (denom+1) solutions
    else begin
      if gcd num denom = 1 then begin
        (* Printf.printf "%d/%d\n" num denom; *)
        loop (num+1) denom (solutions+1)
      end else
        loop (num+1) denom solutions
    loop ((5/3)+1) 5 0;;

Printf.printf "There are %d solutions\n" (solve_it 1000);;

Oh dear, I seem to have an awful accent when programming ocaml. I’ll need to work on that.

$ time ./a.out
There are XXX solutions

real    0m1.071s
user    0m1.060s
sys     0m0.004s

So, Conclusions

For this particular task (looping and integer math) Emacs Lisp is slow, but not that slow compared with another scripting language. I really like the scheme looping constructs and mzscheme is surprisingly quick (again, just for this tiny thing), not too far from the ocaml – although again I should emphasise that the ocaml is a terrible hack. And finally, I need to learn how to use loop properly.

All comments welcome.

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